Because it causes pain, violates the human rights and the health of women and puts girls at risk empowering people in the community with knowledge on the subject and providing the necessary resources will help eliminating the practice key words: female genital mutilation, fgm consequences, interviews, africa. . Fgm/c systematic reviews by the norwegian knowledge centre for the health services provide a useful summary of these impacts, organized into obstetric, gynecological, and immediate health consequences depending on the type of fgm/c  there are four documented types of fgm/c: clitoridectomy (type 1), the. Based on a literature review of global responses to fgm/c and conversations with australian women who migrated from fgm/c practicing countries, this paper provides some background on fgm/c and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls.
Obtain detailed history and screen for infections / complications associated with type of infibulation (see below) explain law in south australia related to fgm in the child protection act and criminal law consolidation act nb: the term female genital mutilation can be offensive to some and its use in consultations may be. Because women may not recognize health effects of fgm/c, ask specific questions (eg, “how long does it take to empty your bladder” “do you have genital scarring or the narrowing of the introitus in women with type iii fgm/c may make a speculum examination challenging or impossible to perform. Further, to clarify understanding of both the prevalence and consequences of fgm/c, who classified the procedure into four categories: type i (clitoridectomy), type ii (excision), type iii (infibulation), and type iv (other) according to a recent unicef report, there is wide variation in fgm/c prevalence across.
Contents main messages background types of fgm prevalence of fgm associated health risks treatment resources children born in the uk may be at risk of fgm when they travel with their families to visit friends and relatives in countries where this practice is common it is illegal to take girls who are uk nationals. The use of separate models for each type of fgm, compared with the baseline group of women without fgm, was decided a priori and precluded formal tests for trend according to the extent of fgm we estimated the effect of genital mutilation on the absolute risk of perinatal death by applying the summary.
Removing normal, healthy genital tissue does not provide any health benefits, and undermines a woman's natural functions it can also lead to complications the exact number of fatalities due to fgm is not known, but in parts of somalia where there are no antibiotics, it has been suggested that 1 in 3 girls. Type i: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce type ii: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of as many health professionals in the uk are unlikely to be familiar with the psychological consequences of fgm, there is an ever-increasing need to. Short-term health implications can range from severe pain and emotional / psychological trauma to, in some cases, death the health problems caused by fgm type 3 are severe - urinary problems, difficulty with menstruation,. Travel health advice relating to female genital mutilation many fgm affected communities use traditional terms for the procedure, eg sunna (fgm types 1 and 2) and pharonic (fgm type 3) fgm is in july 2015, it was estimated that 137 000 girls and women were living with fgm, with 60 000 girls at risk of fgm.
World-wide, female genital mutilation affects more than 80 million women and it is estimated that at least two million girls are mutilated each year this paper describes the types of female genital mutilation performed and their effects on women's physical and psychological health individual case histories are cited to. To learn about the obstetric complications and childbirth experience of women with the ethical issues: • female genital mutilation is a violation of universal human rights • the procedure is regarded as a form of child abuse but not given the same recognition on the rise to future health problems, types iii and iv are. Clinicians should be aware of the short- and long-term complications of fgm the legal and regulatory responsibilities of health professionals fgm and uk law all health professionals must be aware of the female genital mutilation act 2003 in england wales and northern ireland and the prohibition of female genital.
Safeguarding protocols (eg working together to safeguard children 2015) to protect girls and women at risk of fgm since october 2015 registered professionals in health, social care and teaching also have a statutory duty ( known as the mandatory reporting duty) to report cases of fgm to the police non -emergency. Types of fgm female genital mutilation is classified into four types: type i: also known as clitoridectomy, this type consists of partial or total removal of the immediate consequences of fgm include severe pain and bleeding, shock, difficulty in passing urine, infections, injury to nearby genital tissue and sometimes death. Types of fgm fgm can have severe consequences psychologically, emotionally and medically it can include extreme pain, shock, infection, haemorrhage, infertility, incontinence, hiv, urinary tract infections, menstrual obstruction, and death there are no health benefits to fgm it involves removing and damaging healthy.
Methods data were collected on types of fgm/c and health consequences of each type of fgm/c from 871 female patients who consulted for any problem requiring a medical gynaecologic examination and who had undergone fgm/c in the gambia. (cnn) it's a brutal practice that's inflicted on thousands of girls and women every year female genital mutilation, or female ritual cutting, involves altering or injuring female genital organs it's often done by people with no medical training and in filthy places, posing horrendous health risks that can linger for. The world health organization (a un agency) created a more detailed typology: types i–iii vary in how much tissue is removed type iii is equivalent to the unicef category sewn closed and type iv according to one 2008 estimate, over eight million women in africa are living with type iii fgm.
Fgm has serious implications for the sexual and reproductive health of girls and women the effects of fgm depend on a number of factors, including the type performed, the expertise of the practitioner, the hygiene conditions under which it is. Female genital mutilation fgm long term health complications a b s t r a c t female genital mutilation (fgm) comprises various procedures which remove or fit neatly into one specific category of fgm and even experienced health professionals can sometimes find it difficult to be definitive about type. A close scrutiny of the types of fgm reveals a deep-seated fiendishness and the gravity of the practice clitoridectomy involves for those who've undergone infibulation, the need for later surgeries to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth presents further health risks and complications the long-term. Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement unaids, undp, uneca, unesco, unfpa, unhchr unhcr, unicef, unifem, who 1 annex 5: health complications of female genital mutilation 33 references 36 types i, ii and iii female genital mutilation have been documented in 28 countries.